importance of african traditional religion pdf

4 0 obj Faso more than 33 percent follow African religion, although it is not the religion of the majority. These figures represent peo-ple who primarily follow African traditional religion; however, there are also Christians and Muslims who still practice elements of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. religious situations, facts and values in Africa as a whole. However, Contemporary African culture is a mixture of traditional elements and alien features. Here again the writer made mention of the various ceremonies which accompany puberty and its significance in African traditional religion. [͆�D�@�dçIS(P���]�y`�؇nӐe��]���y:f�jG��Z3�y�EԵ���AVOI� ���QF�Yߛ- ��s���33� �/��l�s�D��wc2�iY�pFn�>� IN YORUBA TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS THOUGHT E. Dada Adelowo* Introduction This paper' is moti~ated by' the need. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. This left the African people with the idea that God could not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis. This paper therefore, aims at exploring the role of the traditional religion in sustaining African values, human relations in particular in spite of the challenges of globalization. Whether Africans are part of the modern organized religion today or not, they invoke God in their everyday conversations. The Mwali hilltop cult and shrines is discussed in the 2008 book Mambo Hills: Historical and Religious Significance by Marieke Clarke . endobj %���� x��][o�H�~���Gr��oA ��$9�,f���� K��3����d~�VU_ؼ�%� ��f�YU]��ե���q{�Z?Foޜ�?>��w�&���j�/��ϫ��n�����>>]?b��5�M�.�����_����ՌGYT�ϲ�Qۼ|��_���W/_��c\��y��A�,bQ�ӌ�Q)����x���n0ZtK�*������Q���Ǘ/��X�b���)z��et�a�b��������~�x2�e*�⒘�����w��1Y��m��2n�}{%2��K���t�[�n�Q�ƾ,^'�놇D��^}��WI�_����:�'y��m;eu�p���ح|��5�>)㛄����$c�4"y"�ΓE_C/�� civilization in the traditional days. And we agree with Professor Idowu that the purpose of the study should be: 2 0 obj x��]ٓ&Gq�Ԏ6�+iWB�,bF�4]U}Tcl�p���! Mwali Religion. Some took part as freedom fighters and gained recognition as heroines. Culture is part of the African indigenous Religion. (3�z�����iw���̏�鈶�f�f���@�~n�Ή�ٴM@Tε�����ϴ[51���A�ڑG��0J�:��)_#|_�N�p���e:W��S=�{�����V8��>c���� �}�`��OzU,0�;�˹��L�1�-܂`6��T�6 �8��RЬفJ ;d�'e$I X=��2.��s�4������FEE�,�a�O��Px�_D"��{�FĤLV��p��Ȭ�0||�m�J�>Xg#�Z�0U{7k�� �D����+ApldJZpj���b�yj̓~��r� l�K��n�w�z�f�z�n�!�31���~N�^�>���@�I8O]�ɺw#H��_�U�z� r/��ڂVȤ��/$HQ�5�x{�ٶ��|�GÅ�l����b�DG8�"��M��N�2��b�>����p?�EnT��O <> �æe� Là��\y�]�ھW�4��Yɨ��gՃ KEY WORDS: pregnancy, birth rites, naming rites, puberty rites, ritual ��Ǜ�P��\O�;o��!�������MB��N�����2i��^�v��]ۧ��&�&j�v��b��ҥ�K2F�c�w��7��X���D�a���0Y����S�4Џ��&{���+�Ii��n���˯+���B(�z�V �/�ƞo�Ш��Y٠��?U4��OӸ��4����w����Ki��@��,�}\�S��?pИ��qw����p�t�Q����i��'a�E��od\Z~3��-(��ym�8SI+�vV�����QV!ٓI&E The ceremonies bind and form religious values which govern the family and society. For many Africans and Ghanaians, in particular, it is religion more than anything else that shapes their worldview and participation in social life6. differs in African countries was mentioned. He tried to demonstrate the applicability of the phenomenological method in the study of African Traditional Religion. This is the popular assumption amongst many African theologians of which Maluleke (1994) is one example. As in most of sub-Saharan Africa, ATR is the indigenous religion … For instance, the Yoruba religion has historically been centered in southwestern Nigeria, the Zulu religion in southern Africa, and the Igbo religion in southeastern Nigeria. ?a ��p ?��wUu�U���of�y ����:���ά���N�S���>~��ŏ~3���?��ӗ��˅��O��~����޸�����7��eYeß�iv�֧y��dOo�����׮��;,�����n��/�_]����ˇWC7���i�GW�C�k=L�������ܩy4�땾H�'WK���������tv^�t��U��j��B�?-�>��+Q���a���>��oeX��5x�J�]�؉6x��Ҧ���Y��LK�U���a� � ���u�fF'dX�eA^Ƥl4ӛa*�0(��1��l� �HLt�A�@a�2�O�>�b�O����k���)x��6*. �_�v�`CE�]11m��Y�*��u\����M�ᥟ����Oyr&j忯Wh-�9��^ə�e29�b�&5�V�.��$�: z���0�w��EF'w��e��{���A��f\�^�#�v��U��?�g�)_c�x}����4�N��^�[��o��� �y��x��u�S����׋�]�Ɍ���_\f2���u��9��������l'�砑����vC��~�Nj�Ԑ���iG��� ��_�n��!h6�^����?�~p�搥��[�Gž��j�����`=����x)�#m���&S���������/�� �% =���t�ߍ:���]�|J��4���;e��e�6��|�d���8�U��+w?�_5�����:�N�}LZ������%�#mKgy��r`�Wژ��D�.�J�m�# ��6��͓ID��z�.�q��@�Q���WJ�q��.�('��&N�y$��ژ�s���)��ֵ��}z�x{�����~�:-�@z��ȹ|��B` �!�ݚ�Eڂb1�\��Z���ps�����,~�g���{��IQ�.�8��{��pr\Yx�[!��N#��N�����o�&\�Z`�NrTN�Ʉ�����)>Z99��c��u�$���]w��0$���Z���ژnv���'���\yY~$`�����RCE����t"��q���Q��I����K�>���8 ,{r��"b�+38XMV:� V߭aUA׌����Μ�DNPt���CM�:��:Y��+/�Ym� y��>��3�� It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on.because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. The whole community faithfully carries out all rites and rituals connected with rites of passage such as birth, puberty, marriage, death and life after death. �@x�� |S�����ag�t}��N%���8�R{����^�H�_��B�p�:���:;jn:���njp�v������t��:����i���U���L�t����(��em�F�R���^��/�&'n�+����� ... 2 E. B. Idowu, African Traditional Religion, S.C.M., 1973, p.87. The effect of colonisation on Africa's traditional religion is seen in the views of colonialists that African traditional religious practices are fetish, barbaric, ritualistic and demonic. stream Religion and culture as powerful institutions within society play a major role in shaping gender roles and perpetuating gender inequality and are powerful institutions within society. %PDF-1.5 African women were also directly and indirectly involved in the liberation war. G�|�a�[q��i�`Ya�����S����uߡ���/�j�ur��ړS�l��̓���>���:=��dn�����f��sɇ�"GB~%'\����I���k����\��ӗ�d-�0ի=N�U�KY�R>�.\_��]�l7���Bfi'�IF�?���zqJ������\IµÆn ��CP]̌i��8:��L�{�����W�Y�xg]Ը���sjl�L��Ŋ��Wo>�-��'n�3��~�{Y�/ 3�;�N�S�v�؏ ��!�˲�qk��N0�����哜Ww��=��w�h���+�t��Pz�P��w�i`�����} n�O[��)�zi+Q�ΐ;��htu�N6���7C?�*Ch�Hj��b��u6�����/���7hv�f-�0z���5 ���u� endobj As Mbiti (1970) states, it starts before birth and does not end after death. Traditional African religion is a way of life in which ancestors are part and parcel of every major or minor event such as wedding, births and deaths as well as fetching firewood. (1992) came very close into the substance of this paper when they came up with a book entitled African Traditional Religion in Religious Education: A Resource Book with Special Reference to Zimbabwe. %�쏢 RELIGION is a fundamental, perhaps the most important, influence in the life of most Africans; yet its essential principles are too often unknown to foreigners who thus make themselves constantly liable to misunderstand the African worldview and beliefs. The best interpreter of African Religion is the African with a disciplined mind and the requisite technical tools. This is what made scholars such as Mbiti (1969,p.1), Parrinder (1954,p.9) and Mugambi (1995) conclude … African identity and culture are preserved in African Traditional Religion. Because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. �P֫)�k:�J���5��Vw@t2^�a�oz�j"�Nܘ�*����YLyys� [+F���[L|���h�{���g�RB7���y�Z%��u2Y���XgG�{����緯|�ʤ�k2��i��)���@C��4��|L����)zɘB �N�t�� �1�4w�� L[���0�R�˼��w崓���B[e��-�bҊ-�K�3���1��Ȃx�$!j6�H�R��+��.��h(��. The Cosmos Traditional Africans believe that the cosmos was created by a Supreme Being, God. 1 0 obj The term ‘ethics’ is technically used by philosophers tomean a philosophical study of morality—morality understood as aset of social rules, principles, norms that guide or are intended toguide the conduct of people in a society, and as beliefs about rightand wrong conduct as well as good or bad character. During these events usually an offering is made to honour, please and thank the ancestors. In a nutshell, traditional African religion is part and parcel of culture in Africa. Local African culture was oppressed for many years by white South Africans, who find their cultural roots in … The traditional spiritual beliefs of the Chewa people of Zambia, … However, it is important to acknowledge that there is no uniform African traditional belief in the spirit world as Salala rightly points out (ibid., 134). �|�,utǡ��v��2Q��d�jrq�f��M7PC�)2����-|�O���7,�0�[�i=�_�a/�O�m��"Ɗ����X`��Yꟿ��2��FpX�Bj�s�FxCq�DdÐ���`��%��*Ȱ��g,-J1��eطа��*��ۃj�j�q,tm{w������>q��A�sA��qN$��D� endobj &R�c��Ԣ���I��X�6�Wa). on account of the persistent marginalisation of African Traditional Religion (ATR) in Sierra Leone by Islam and Christianity, to investigate the place of ATR in inter-religious encounters in the country since the advent of Islam and Christianity. The African life is wrapped in religion. — Njelele Shrine, 35km south of Bulawayo in the Matobo Hills, is the most famous place of pilgrimage and rain dances for the traditional Mwali spirit. 3 0 obj Mugambi, 1995). %PDF-1.4 <> ^xH&M'�Y۩Z7��E�D�i�%qN^Kː 9�2��#�Lf�R�sNwԬ��vҬ�0;aD�a��(��-{�pSkD�:w9t�!�M1̀ s��)�Ű!�!�O��J�a��"���0Ɯ�p>�)����a&L��DA�L�� =H�eP+g �T���m��0Δ�`-���`X+Z�&E0"Vo�I��Ma�T���fs'��gr�j�i� K�]/>�Ĭ��W�`Kȕ�{�䊨�4{��:�}���* They counteracted various derogatory names given to AIR. Traditional African religion is a way of life in which ancestors are part of every major event such as wedding, births and deaths as well as less important ones such as getting a job and finishing university. 1�x�xp���~�I�٣7�m#M�Wj��xA���qN���,PT2���^��]��R�ϸ�6ക�C3����Y۪�'�K�~Bw��v������4-x������ꚦ�wE@�;5 The major aim of this book is to present the relevance of culture to Africans in the modern era. The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. ��M�!�e�J/��"�0�����Nq�"3�_aÇd!+�;���\4C��2-�Ɍ0"+��5�qu�|R�w�!9Kk�C~��V3Mڊ�$��� ߈�2d yF�T�!Jf"e��z��:~ �U� S� d����E�{�hba��E�RVT�Ge�qBz�k���2^�����һo�P)R�}�7ꙌQv���#.��dQש�F4^%y�+X��-�o��"�w�r�ߴ�+l�+����B�?�{l��b�=��"�a������k�K;q�urpD�B� ~O�`������ Hn��5~:D�]�x�D�ɦS-�V������3t�V������g��P`Ax�x���8M���i퉛2�.��O4ۭ�g5ٯ=̹t�拏�̴�� ���D˪T�W��?���n�e![���Cc?�"C���+E|�o�&��K����s0�`�7_BiXHyͦİJ8��;B>7��ӦAfv��u���P�T��ZV(���ݏ3JW|/+��Ywy"�E��tB�E�V�YlN�Fľcڮ��[5��%X�8�@��o��|^ힾ�D�HႧ���D\���*=�z.�)��P������??6`����! African Traditional Religion (ATR) or African Religion in this paper gave meaning and a sense of purpose to all aspects of thought and action (cf. Topic: The Impact of African Traditional Religious Beliefs and Cultural Values on Christian-Muslim Relations in Ghana from 1920 through the Present: A Case Study of Nkusukum-Ekumfi-Enyan traditional area of the Central Region. In the African traditional religions, ancestors were never considered demonic or as part of evil spirits (2007;383). John S. Mbiti, in his book Introduction to African Religion (1977: 63-66) argues that, “in African societies sacrifice was very common and that most, involved shedding of blood of a human being or an animal.” He adds that in African societies, life is closely associated with blood. A lot of leaders have emerged from the African religion. The traditional African understanding and the interpretation of Christianity have deep roots in these fundamental beliefs of the African traditional religions. to ' correct the erroneOUS observatiods, notions, assertions and pontifications of some foreign armchair investigators about . African Traditional Religion: A Definition (1973), Omosade Awolalu in Yoruba Belief and Sacrificial Rites and John Mbiti in The Concept of God in Africa (1970) are a few examples of postcolonial scholars of religion who have resisted and denounced colonial idea that Africans do not know God. African Traditional Religion cannot easily be studied by non-Africans. traditional Shona religion, I am referring to a particular strand of Shona religiosity widely known as the Mwari religion. They provided food and traditional medicine to the fighters. Inter-religious relations, especially, among African Traditional Religion (ATR) worshippers, Muslims and Christians are becoming sources of social tension and violence. It is an accepted position that the African Initiated Churches (AICs) were formed as a result of the search for a unique African identity and culture. ���)IM� ����u�Um�$%��`��Y�.� ��e��K�G�!aD�zIY@�ߝZ0�.�c�`K�ᣅ�����Z}@C��w2��Q�G����(a��{��(�[L �W�*N�rD�B�a);�S�����~Fi������ �,��ܒ��I4���:+;WFK���%�>C�9q+B`�HX��⇯acp��[:Z|.�߇{���-��=��Lk�I��;�Ys���x�%M��q���UX���j&n� S! In another chapter, puberty rites were mentioned as another rites of passage. the like.” African traditional spirituality as an African heritage must be taken seriously for a fuller understanding of African Christian spirituality, particularly of the African Pentecostal churches. Nevertheless, the African traditional religion has played a remarkable role in sustaining such values but with serious challenges. For a more detailed treatment of this subject of God in Africa, see Mbiti 1982 and 1992. The African traditional 1. African culture has experienced rapid change since the colonial invasion. ;�;m��έ�]����mB��"�D��T�S���U���D��[�뻨j�*�3l�� �D{��k���7��@tB����0�cg]�������Er�+�e��)džs�k��f6cƃRU�iu��,Wdm�lA���ִ��#���OLs8�1��/‰��#����q��s� �v(a���6�l�A�`O/H�vX��*���3��S����О�ME_�q����v�&oM����m?�{���{��ў��nˠ� <>>> Furthermore, gender relations within the religious and cultural communities are a reflection of gender relations within broader society. stream In spite of thephilosophical inquiries or analyses undertaken by individualmoralphilosophers regarding morality … Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural and passed down from one generation to another through folk tales, songs and festivals, include belief in an amount of higher and lower gods, sometimes including a supreme creator or force, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional African medic 5 0 obj It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so on. <> T~E ROLE OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL LEADERSHIP IN MODERN DEMOCRATIC SOUTH AFRICA: SERVICE PROVISIONING IN RURAL AREAS BY PHUTI SOLOMON MATLOA: STUDENT NO: 204000139 Submitted in Part Fulfilment for the Requirements for the Degree Mambo Hills is northeast of Bulawayo. ter Haar et al. ��/� DI�41���@ ���tD�}r�;ں�Y ���w�,XV��z����wi��A�1JtЊvr�lf������F�aD7E���@άs���� 0��0�=�ᰆ���L��"�q�{VΝ��f\}io�K�y=�lXS.P������6ChXێ m�%� ~�nUƫ�V��)=v�p%F��B�vy����}�+6,�0+V8sG����&>K�_��i�ͯ���B��O���ntQ�v�y�C��N��ž�[ׄ�I�ձ�'u�v�R����;�}�h��A/D|أ+ӮI�9Ҋ�����Q$c��L,��� Even thoughmorality is the subject matter of ethics, it is most often usedinterchangeably with ‘ethics’. The first is that the context of this article is sub-Sahara Africa. By this label serious damage was done to the gospel in Africa. <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Ancestors maintain a spiritual connection with their living relatives and generally most of them are good and kind. Examples of such ' Religion 20 [1990] contains some articles on the study of African Religions that are worth reading. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religion of the African people. where one’s family came from. This belief, just as in the case of the previous one, has a theological basis – the plurality of divinities ( polytheism ). Indigenous African religions are by nature plural, varied, and usually informed by one’s ethnic identity i.e. Traditional African approaches in the light of natural values, and of modern secular attitude If we are going to speak of traditional African concepts and customs regarding marriage and the family, a few clarifications are called for. Arguably, women’s experiences of being in the world and their aspirations to transcend the world of men are reflected in the Mwari religion despite the tendency in earlier studies to deal with the religion … Rosalind J. Hackett as a guest-editor has been responsible for those pages. Nutshell, traditional African religions that are worth reading first is that the of. Not end after death elements and alien features and indirectly involved in the liberation war Idowu, traditional... Form religious values which govern the family and society understanding and the technical! Part of evil spirits ( 2007 ; 383 ) not end after.... 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